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The choir repertoire

We have an extensive repertoire.  This section explains the background to some of our songs

 

Ain't Gonna Study War No More

The newest addition to our repertoire, Ain’t Gonna Study War No More, originated as a nineteenth century African-American spiritual. It gained a new life and significance in the 1960s when it was adopted as an anthem by the anti-nuclear movement. It was sung on Aldermaston marches in which at least two CMVC members took part.

The song is also known as Down by the Riverside. The riverside is a potent image  in spirituals and refers to crossing the River Jordan to the promised land – itself a metaphor for ascending the heaven after death. It also invokes the Southern Baptist ritual of baptism by total immersion. The biblical imagery has a further layer of meaning–an allusion to escaping slavery by crossing the Ohio River, the border between slave and non-slave states before the Civil War.

The refrain of ‘Ain’t gonna study war no more’ derives from the Old Testament verse: “Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more.” It invokes the anti-warfare sentiment of swords to ploughshares.

The song was first published in Plantation Melodies in 1918 and was recorded by a college quartet in 1920. Some of the great blues singers recorded it, including Big Bill Broonzy and Lead Belly, as did Pete Seeger.

The song came into prominence in the late 1950s and 1960s and was often to be heard at anti-nuclear and anti-Vietnam protests. It was included in a booklet of songs produced by Campaign of Nuclear Disarmament for marchers on the Aldermaston marches. The first of these, in 1958, went from London to the nuclear research establishment at Aldermaston in Berkshire; subsequent marches, from 1959 to the mid-1960s, went from Aldermaston to London, ending in Trafalgar Square.

 

Croydon CND en route from Aldermaston to London: Ain't Gonna Study War No More was a favourite

Other songs sung on the marches included Don’t You Hear the H-Bombs Thunder, If I had a Hammer and The Family of Man. The protest movement attracted folk-singers such as Karl Dallas and Ewan MacColl as well as trad-jazz bands like Ken Colyer’s.

Croydon played an important part in the protest movement. The Croydon branch of CND was formed in 1959 and its banner was prominent on marches and demonstrations well into the 1960s. It staged a sit-in at Croydon Town Hall to protest against what it saw as the farce of civil defence and the supposition that there could be any protection against a nuclear attack. Members also protested at US air bases in England and at the nuclear submarine base at Holy Loch in southern Scotland.

Croydon CND contingent - precursor to CMVC - approaches Trafalgar Square

Choir chair Kim Ormond took part in the CND march into London in 1960, when he walked with the Bromley contingent in a family group led by his mother. Kim especially remembers singing the campfire melody:  "You'll never get to heaven in an old Ford car - because an old Ford car won't get that far."

Choir bass Peter Gillman and his future wife Leni – founder members of Croydon CND – took part in a number of Aldermaston marches from 1959 on, as well as other protests and demonstrations.

Peter says: “I am thrilled that Richard is invoking Croydon’s proud radical past with this wonderful new choice and arrangement. I remember singing the song countless times on the way from Aldermaston to London and that's how I got into singing, leading directly to joining CMVC ten years ago.

"I am sure that many choir members will share the song's anti-war sentiments and will be delighted to be associated with the sixties protest movement in this way.”

Leni Gillman (to be) under Croydon banner at Trafalgar Square

Do YOU have memories of the 1960s protest movement? If so, contact website editor Peter Gillman

 

 


The Soldiers' Chorus, from Faust

This wonderfully rousing and moving song is taken from the opera Faust, composed by Charles Gounod and first performed in Paris in 1859.

The opera tells a story of a character from German mythology, the student Faust who sells his soul to the devil in return for 24 years of earthly delights. When the 24 years are up, he will suffer the endless torments of hell. The most celebrated renditions of the myth include the play Dr Faustus by Christopher Marlowe, first performed in 1594; and Goethe’s Faust, a theatrical poem first published in 1808. Gounod’s opera drew heavily on the Goethe version.

Charles Gounod: wrote the Soldiers' Chorus

The Soldiers’ Chorus is sung in Act Four of the opera. It is sung by a company of soldiers returning from some unspecified war, together with the villagers who welcome them home. The soldiers include the character Valentin, brother of Marguerite, the leading female character. Marguerite has been seduced and made pregnant by Faust. After she gives birth, Faust abandons her.

On his return, Valentin takes on Faust in a sword fight. Faust is assisted by Mephistopheles, the devil, and Valentin is killed. He condemns Marguerite to hell with his dying breath.

The song has three sections. It begins with the great martial rallying cry, Glory and love to the men of old. It is followed by the more sedate but equally evocative chorus of pleasure at returning home. Finally comes a repeat of the first call to arms, dignified, determined and powerful.

The song gains depth and significance from its setting and context in the opera. It is preceded by a song, Deposons nos armes–Put down our arms, which has a more pacific feel, and balances the two martial verses of the chorus itself.

The verses of the chorus echo key themes of the opera. The French title is Gloire immortelle de nos aïeux – the immortal glory of our forefathers. The first line of the song in French is Gloire immortelle. Glory is a key notion in the opera. When Valentin goes off to war in Act Two he anticipates the glory that awaits him. More often glory is an ironic concept: Mephistopheles offers Faust glory in Act One, and alcohol is described as a source of glory in Act Two.

The concept of immortality is central to the whole work – it is part of the bargain that Faust strikes with Mephistopheles.

Gounod wrote twelve operas, of which this is the most famous, as well as two symphonies and a range of choral pieces. He was born in Paris in 1818 and died of a stroke at the age of 65. He lived in Morden Road, Blackheath, from 1870 to 1874 and became the first conductor of the Royal Choral Society.

Faust was rejected by the Paris Opera and when it was first performed in 1859 it was not a hit.  It proved more successful when it was revived in 1862, and it was first staged in London in 1864. The English translation is by Henry Chorley, an art and music critic, who also wrote novels and journalism. His translation is impressively accurate and authentic, and contrasts with other more convoluted translations of operatic works (Take for example, “Golden harps of the prophets oh tell me, why so silent ye hang from the willows?”).

Charles Gillman: sang Soldiers' Chorus on Western Front

The song has an intriguing link with our World War One medley. It was sung as a marching song during World War One by the men of the Civil Service Rifles, a regiment which was at Ypres in 1915, the Somme in 1916, Jerusalem in 1917 and the Western Front again in 1918. I know this because my father was a member of the regiment from 1914 to 1918.

By Peter Gillman

 


 

Schubert's Serenade

Our new repertoire piece, Serenade, was written in 1826 by Franz Schubert (1797-1828), often considered the greatest song-writer of all time. It was contained in a batch of thirteen songs published after his death under the title Schwanengesang – Swan Song. It is an exquisite setting of the poem Ständchen–Serenade–by the German poet Ludwig Rellstab (1799-1860).

Franz Schubert

This is one of seven poems which Rellstab is said to have given to Beethoven, in the hope that he would set them to music, but Beethoven passed them on to Schubert. Rellstab is perhaps best-known for giving Beethoven’s Piano Concerto 14 the title Moonlight Sonata.

In the song, the narrator is attempting to woo his lover: no-one is looking, I will care for you, let us haste. The English translation–arranged by our musical director, Richard Hoyle–is by the playwright and librettist Edward Fitzball (1792-1873), who was the in-house writer and play-reader at Covent Garden and then Drury Lane.

Schubert is said to have written the tune in a moment of inspiration while strolling with friends through a crowded public park in Vienna in the summer of 1826. They stopped for refreshments and one of the friends opened a book of poems. Schubert looked at a poem and exclaimed: “Such a delicious melody has come into my head – if only I had a sheet of paper.” A friend jotted the tune for him on the back of the menu.

Schubert wrote the song during one of the most prolific periods of his life, with works that included the Great C major Symphony and the Winterreise song-cycle. He died two years later, at the age of 31.  The song can be conventionally read as a courtship piece, but it can also be interpreted as one of loss, longing and regret.

That is evident in the stunning rendition by the great German baritone Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau.  Link here:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K9MVCsYcmJQ

There are also wonderful recordings by the Swedish tenor Jussie Bjorling and by Bryn Terfel, who has a CD of the whole Schwanengesang.

 

 

Our Christmas Medley - the four songs

The Christmas medley, which we are currently rehearsing for inclusion in our forthcoming Christmas CD, consists of extracts from four songs. Three are by US composers and writers, one by a British team. Ironically at least two were written during very hot spells in the summer.

Let It Snow was written by lyricist Sammy Cahn and composer Jule Styne in Hollywood in July 1945.  They wrote it during one of the hottest days on record.  It was first recorded by Vaughn Monroe and went to no 1 in the US charts.  Singers who have covered it since include Frank Sinatra, Dean Martin, Rod Stewart and Kylie Minogue. Stewart included it in a Christmas album and it has become a popular Christmas number.

Sammy Cahn - wrote winter song in hottest summer

Sleigh Ride, from which the second medley item is taken, is another piece written in the summer.  Leroy Anderson wrote it during a heat wave at his home in Woodbury, Connecticut in July 1946. His aim was to convey the spirit of winters past through the imagery of a sleigh ride.  He wrote it as an orchestral piece and it was first performed by the Boston Pops Orchestra.  Lyricist Mitchell Parish added the words in 1950. Parish’s other works include Sophisticated Lady, the English version of Volare, Stardust and Moonlight Serenade.  He also claimed to have written the lyrics for Mood Indigo, although someone else got the credit.

The Little Boy that Santa Claus Forgot was written in 1937 and is usually credited to three writers: Michael Carr, a British light music composer from Leeds; Tommie Connor, from London, writer of the hit I Saw Mommy Kissing Santa Claus; and one Jimmy Leach.  Artists who have recorded it include Nat King Cole, Billy Cotton and – most notably – Vera Lynn, whose version was included in the opening sequences of the film Pink Floyd – The Wall.  An audio link to the Vera Lynn version is here (cut and paste if necessary):

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mFJ7fuiK1Yw


The last piece, Winter Wonderland, was written in 1934 by Felix Bernard (music) and Richard B Smith (lyrics).  Smith was supposedly inspired by seeing snow covering the park at his home town of Honesdale, Pennsylvania, and wrote the lyrics while being treated for TB (then known as consumption) in a sanatorium in Scranton (as in The Rhythm of Life).  The composer, Felix Bernard, was a pianist and bandleader who wrote pieces for Al Jolson, Eddie Canton and Sophie Tucker.  The line “Then pretend that he is Parson Brown” refers to parsons (or ministers) who travelled among rural towns to perform wedding ceremonies for couples who did not have a minister of their own faith. A remarkable number of artists have recorded the song, among them Annie Lennox, Barry Manilow, Dave Brubeck, Peggy Lee and Ray Charles.

Dave Brubeck - recorded Winter Wonderland

 

Who was the girl from Ipanema?

The girl from Ipanema - the title of our latest song -  was Heloisa Eneida Menezes Pais Pinto, who lived  in Montenegro Street in the fashionable Ipanema district of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  In the early 1960s, when she was 17, she would visit the Veloso bar/café, a hang-out of two Brazilian song-writers:  composer Antonio Carlos Jobim and writer Vinicius de Moraes.

They were writing a musical comedy entitled Dirigivel and were inspired by the lissom young woman they saw coming into the bar.  Moraes later wrote that she was “mixture of flower and mermaid, full of light and grace”.

The song was first recorded in Portuguese in 1962.  The English version, which had been translated by US lyricist Norman Gimbel, was recorded in a New York studio in 1964.  The composer, Antonio Jobin, was working with Joao Gilberto, a Brazilian singer and guitarist, and Stan Getz, the US jazz saxophonist, who had previously played in the celebrated big bands of Woody Herman and Benny Goodman.

They decided to record the English version and enlisted Gilberto’s wife Astrud, the only member of the group who could speak English well enough.   As an untrained singer, her unaffected voice, devoid of mannerisms, was the perfect fit for the song. She was supported by the playing of Gilberto and Getz, who delivered a sublime saxophone solo.

The song, which featured in an album called Getz/Gilberto, became a singles hit, reaching no 5 in the US and 29 in the UK.  It has been frequently recorded since.

Meanwhile the story of the original girl from Ipanema is intriguing.     Helo, as she was known, was the daughter of a Brazilian army general who was divorced from her mother when Helo was four. Helo walked past the Veloso bar on her way to school and the beach, and also bought cigarettes in the bar for her mother.  At 17, when she was first spotted by Jobim and de Moraes, she was shy and self-conscious, contributing to an air of vulnerability that added to her appeal.

Although the song was written in 1962, Helo did not learn that she was its inspiration until 1964, when Jobim finally plucked up the courage to speak to her. De Moraes revealed the full story in a press conference in 1965, paying her the following compliment:

“She is a golden girl, a mixture of flowers and mermaids, full of light and full of grace, but whose character is also sad with the feeling that youth passes and that beauty isn’t ours to keep. She is the gift of life with its beautiful and melancholic constant ebb and flow.”

Helo was offered modelling contracts and movie roles but turned them down.  She married a businessman named Fernando Pinheiro and became a mother and housewife.  In late 1970s her husband’s businesses hit hard times and Helo gave birth to a handicapped son.  She decided it was time to cash in on her role as the girl from Ipanema.  She became a model, gossip columnist and tv host and endorsed a wide range of products.

Helo is now 67 and has her own website, which markets bikinis among other products under the name Garota de Ipanema.  Garota is a colloquial Portuguese word for girl.

Link here:   http://www.garotadeipanema.com.br/

 

The Finlandia Hymn

Our new song Finlandia, with its affecting melody and stirring climax, has a fascinating and complex provenance.

The tune is known as the Finlandia Hymn, and is part of the patriotic symphonic poem Finlandia, written in 1899 by the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius.  Finlandia is an assertion of Finnish defiance against Russian rule at a time when Finland was part of the Russian Empire (Finland finally won its independence in 1917).

Sibelius

The piece is at first rousing and patriotic but then subsides to the calm of the Finlandia Hymn, which Sibelius composed himself – it was not a traditional folk melody, as some have claimed.  Sibelius later reworked the hymn into a stand-alone piece.  The Finnish poet Veikko Antero Koskenniemi wrote words for the hymn in 1941, when Finland was fighting the USSR, and it became the country’s most popular anthem.

The words in our version come from two different sources.  The first verse, starting “Be still my soul”, originates from a German hymn written in 1752 and translated into English in 1855.  It was a favourite hymn of Eric Liddell, the British athlete who won a gold medal in the 400 metres in Paris in 1924 despite refusing to run on a Sunday, and whose achievement was commemorated in the film Chariots of Fire.

Liddell became a missionary in China and in 1942, following the Japanese invasion, he was incarcerated in an internment camp. In 1945 he fell ill and while in the camp infirmary asked the camp’s Salvation Army band to play the Finlandia Hymn. Liddell died a few weeks later, not long before the end of the war.  The Christian message of the verse can thus be read as an invocation of hope and consolation in the face of oppression and misfortune.  There are at least five other hymns which use the Finlandia Hymn tune. The second verse in our version, starting “May peace abound”, is taken from This is my Song, a hymn written in 1934 by the US poet Lloyd Stone.   “May peace abound” is actually the fourth verse of This is my Song and was most likely added by Georgia Harkness, a US Methodist theologian who was important in the movement to achieve ordination for women in American Methodism.  It complements the Christian message of the first verse with its plea for peace and justice and an end to wars, sentiments echoed by the post-war peace movement in Europe and the US.

The moving version that we sing was arranged by the well-known Welsh Male Voice Choir conductor and arranger Haydn James.   It was brought to the attention of our musical director Richard Hoyle  by our member Ernest Williams after it had been sung - in Welsh - at a massed Albert Hall concert. It was Haydn who combined the two verses in our English version, and he did so for a pre-Olympics mass choir concert, starring Bryn Terfel, that he will be conducting at the Festival Hall in July.

Richard wrote to Haydn asking for permission to perform it, which he readily granted. Haydn also secured permission on our behalf from the Sibelius estate, as the piece is still in copyright.  Richard has sent Haydn a standing invitation to attend one of our performances of the piece.  Dr James says: "I certainly look forward to coming along to hear you sing."

Indeed, he would have attended the mass choir concert at Fairfield Hall on June 2, as he is president of the Rushmoor Odd Fellows, one of the participating choirs.  However he was already committed to conducting a 1050-voice choir at the Millennium Stadium where the all-conquering Wales rugby team was playing the Barbarians.   Haydn is known to some choir members as the conductor of the British and Irish Lions Male Voice Choir, with whom they have sung on rugby tours abroad - Ernest Williams among them.   He has conducted the pre-match singing at the Cardiff Millennium Stadium for Wales's last 50 or so rugby internationals.


The Hill  -  the truth

Following numerous enquiries by choir members, musical director Richard Hoyle has revealed the story behind the poignant lyrics of his composition The Hill, which was recently added to the choir repertoire.

The hill in question is Castle Hill in Huddersfield, the most prominent landmark in the district.  Consisting largely of sandstone, it is the site of one of Yorkshire's most important iron age hill forts and was first settled 4000 years ago.  A monument to Queen Victoria, a huge castle turret folly, was constructed on the summit in 1899, taking its height to more than 1000 feet.

Richard, who grew up in Huddersfield, recalls seeing the hill from his childhood home.  "I loved being taken there to climb the hill with my parents," he says.  From the top he could look out over the town and as far as the Pennine border with Lancashire.

Richard climbed Castle Hill again when he was 19 and about to leave home for university.  "I sat there for ages looking at the whole of the place where I had spent my life to date.  I realised, as all youngsters of that age do, that I was 'moving on' and that I would not really belong to that place again and that I was facing a new life in London."  Richard adds that we all have "significant and memorable" moments in our lives - "well, that was one of mine."

Richard, inspired by a photo of the hill above his computer at his home in Croydon, began to write the words to The Hill a few years ago.  "They were never meant to be a song, just rambling thoughts prompted by the fact that I hadn't been to my hill for a number of years."

Richard returned to Huddersfield in March and climbed the hill for the first time in a decade.  It was shrouded in mist and he took the photo below as "out of breath and with tired and ageing legs, I reached the top - I could not have asked for a more atmospheric scene."

As he had done when 19,  Richard paused for a time at the top. "I communed there for a while, as it were," Richard says.  "Although I couldn't see the views, I felt the same sense of belonging and deep nostalgia for a time long since gone."

Richard composed the music for The Hill after completing the poem.  It will be added to the choir's concert repertoire later this year.

 

Nearing the top of Castle Hill in mist - photo by Richard Hoyle


The Blue Tail Fly

Who is Jimmy and why does he crack corn?

By one account, this was originally a blackface minstrel song, first performed in the 1840s.   The narrative is, on the surface, a black slave’s lament over his master’s death.  It can also be read more subversively, as a slave rejoicing over the master’s death.

There are numerous interpretations of the phrase Jimmy crack corn.  The most favoured is that it refers to cracking open a bottle of cheap whiskey.  Another is that Jimmy is slang for a crow and the phrase refers to crows being allowed to feed in the cornfields, rather than being chased away by the slaves.  The blue-tail fly in question is probably a species of horse-fly found in the US South which feeds on the blood of horses and cattle.

On the surface, there could be is problem about singing a blackface minstrel song, since the entire genre has been discredited as racist.  However this one has been sung by such right-on figures as Pete Seeger and the blues singer Big Bill Broonzy.   Some believe that the song is a genuine African American piece rather than a minstrel pastiche.  Seeger and others are also inclined to the subversive interpretations of the song.

Seeger: favours radical interpretation


The Peacemakers

The Peacemakers  is a setting of a poem by Waldo Williams (1904-1971), a Welsh writer who was also author of Recollection/Cofio, one of the pieces we sang at the Truro choir competition in 2009.

Williams was a renowned Welsh-language poet, born in Pembrokeshire in south-west Wales.  He was a teacher, like his father, and developed radical political and cultural views.  His poem Cofio, written in the 1930s, is both a celebration and a lament for the Welsh culture and language, which he saw as under threat.  Williams was also religious, first a Welsh Baptist and then a Quaker.  He became a pacifist and was a conscientious objector in World War Two.  During the Korean War he was imprisoned for withholding taxes on the grounds that they would be used to finance the war.

Williams wrote Y tangnefeddwyr, translated as The Peacemakers, in 1941, after witnessing the bombing of Swansea which was targeted by the German Luftwaffe on three successive nights in February that year.  Like Cofio, its immediate meaning – particularly in the English translation – is not always clear.   Our second tenor, Ernest Williams (no relation) admires Waldo Williams and his work.   He has provided comments which illuminate The Peacemakers through an understanding of Williams’ biography and beliefs.  Ernest also points out that in several places, the English translation of the poem understates or subtly misrepresents Williams’ intentions.   The translation we sing was made by Eric Jones, who also set our arrangement

Ernest Williams (no relation)

As Ernest tell us, Williams opens by describing seeing Swansea ablaze.  (“Abertawe”, the Welsh name for Swansea, is rendered in our version as “the city”.)  Williams invokes memories of his parents, who had died before the war, and who are the peacemakers of the title.   The Jones translation runs:  “Blest are they in glad release, God’s own children….”  As translated by Ernest, the original version makes more sense:  “Blessed are they because they are beyond the pain of warfare, they who were children of God…”

In the next two verses, comments Ernest, Williams describes his parents and their influence on each other. “Slander was not for them, they looked for good in everyone. In caring for the poor, his mother showed his father that the Christian way was to seek the truth and to love their neighbour.”

Williams then evokes a mix of Christian and pacifist beliefs to condemn the view that nations are divided into good and evil:  this, he says, is an illusion (translated by Eric Jones as “a lie”.)   Ernest believes that the curious phrase “what of their estate this night?”  means “what would they be feeling this night?”

Williams praises his parents further by saying that they believed in truth and foregiveness.   He concludes with the pacifist assertion that the world will be blessed when war is no more and men can live as brothers.

Ernest suggests that in writing his poem, Williams may have been influenced by the great Welsh hymn Rhagluniaeth fawr y Nef.   Ernest says that this piece “poses the difficulty we have in understanding destruction alongside building, warfare with peace, seemingly good nations with bad, beauty with ugliness – can we have one without the other?”

In that case, Williams appears to answer the question by asserting that war is unequivocally bad and that pacifism is the only true creed.   In my view, his poem also extends themes explored in Cofio, which can be read as profoundly nostalgic, laden with regrets for transience and the passage of time.   The Peacemakers, beside its ideology, is an insistent lament for Waldo Williams’ parents and the values they represented.

Ernest ends his commentary with a personal note.   The author of Rhagluniaeth fawr y Nef, David Charles (1762-1834), wrote his hymn after seeing the Carmarthen rope factory on fire.   “I was told by my uncle that my mother’s great grandfather worked in the factory,” Ernest says.   “After the fire he and his young son walked the 80 miles to Pwllheli in north Wales in order to find work in the ship-building yard there.”

 

 

 


 

 

 

Days of wine and roses


This song is taken from the 1962 movie of the same name.   Directed by Blake Edwards, the film tells the story of an alcoholic, played by Jack Lemmon, who ensnares his younger wife (Lee Remick) in his destructive drinking habits.

The music for the song was composed by Henry Mancini, with lyrics by Johnny Mercer.  They won that year’s Oscar for the best original song.   The best-known recording is by Andy Williams, made in 1963.   The phrase “days of wine and roses” is taken from a poem Vitae Summa Brevis by the Victorian English writer Ernest Dowson.   It was first used as the title for a 90-minute teleplay written by J P Miller and broadcast in the US in 1958.  The tv play was adapted in turn by Blake Edwards for the 1962 movie.

The tv play had impressive credits: directed by John Frankenheimer and starring Cliff Robertson and Piper Laurie.   It uses the framework of an Alcoholics Anonymous meeting, where an ambitious ad man played by Robertson tells his story in flashbacks.   When J P Miller was looking for a title, he found it in the Dowson poem, written in 1896.  The poem runs:

They are not long, the weeping and the laughter,

Love and desire and hate;

I think they have no portion in us after

We pass the gate.

They are not long, the days of wine and roses:

Out of a misty dream

Our path emerges for a while, then closes

Within a dream.

 

Johnny Mercer’s lyrics contain echoes of the Dowson original.  One critic considered Mancini’s setting over-lush, but actor Jack Lemmon, who sat down and cried the first time he heard it, considered it “the most beautifully appropriate song ever written for a film”.    Heard in the context of the film, the lyric is rich with poignancy and irony.   Taken by itself, it can be read with a more straightforward romantic and nostalgic meaning.

Mancini and Mercer wrote another current CMVC song, Moon River, which featured in the film Breakfast at Tiffany's.

 


 

 

Irish Medley


The four pieces in the choir’s Irish medley, which were selected and arranged by musical director Richard Hoyle and went into rehearsal in January 2011, are remarkably similar in their provenance.  All were written in the years shortly before the First World War, and reflect a growing contemporary interest in Irish culture, at least as perceived in expatriate communities.   All four were recorded by Bing Crosby in the 1940s, when Hollywood took up Irish subjects.  They are similar in expressing themes of separation and longing, both celebrating and regretting the culture of the homeland, whether real or imagined.   Strikingly, none of the lyric writers, with one possible exception, were actually Irish.

Too-ra-loo-ra-loo-ral – An Irish Lullaby was written in 1913 by a US actor, composer and song-writer, James Royce Shannon.    He was born James Royce in Michigan in 1881 and established a touring theatrical company which performed in both the US and Europe.   Although of English descent, he adopted the name Shannon to give him street cred for the Irish-themed songs and plays he was writing and performing.     He wrote Too-ra-loo-ra-loo-ral for a musical production, Shameen Dhu, first staged in New York in February 1914.

Shameen Dhu was a classic musical love story set in 18th-century Ireland.   The Shameen Dhu of the title is the nickname of one of the lead characters, Dare O’Donnell, who is among a group of Irish patriots fighting to free Ireland from English rule.   The character sings the piece to evoke memories of his mother as he contemplates marriage.    It thus combines nostalgia for childhood and for the distant land – “Over in Killarney” – where he grew up.  Add the anti-British sentiments of the play, and you have a potent mix to appeal to the expanding Irish expatriate community of early 20th-century New York.  It remained popular as a parlour song for the next five years.

The same themes were picked up in the song’s second coming, when it featured in the 1944 movie Going my Way, starring Bing Crosby.  Crosby plays a young New York parish priest ministering to the Irish community, Father Chuck O’Malley, and he performs the song in a version which fully exploits its sentimental value.    The movie, directed by Leo McCarey, won seven Oscars, including Crosby’s award as best supporting actor.   After World War Two Crosby presented a copy of the film to Pope Pius XII and even showed the pope his Oscar.

The song was subsequently sung and recorded by performers ranging from Dean Martin and Steve Martin to Van Morrison and Carla in an episode of Cheers.

 

When Irish Eyes are Smiling has close links with Too-ra-loo-ra-loo-ral, as it was written by the actor Chauncey Olcott, who played Dare O’Donnell (and sang Too-ra-loo-ra-loo-ral)  in the New York production of 1914.   Olcott, a producer as well as an actor, was another writer with an eye for the romanticised version of Ireland then popular in  the US and Britain.  He wrote the song for his production of the play The Isle O’Dreams, which ­– like Shameen Dhu – was first staged in New York, in 1913.  It too took place in the Ireland of 1790s, and once again featured a struggle against an English army of occupation.  Olcott encouraged the belief that he was Irish although he was born in Buffalo, New York in 1858. He retired in Monaco and died there in 1932.   His life story was told in the Warner Brothers movie My Wild Irish Rose in 1947.   Bing Crosby recorded the song in the 1940s.

Chauncy Olcott, "The Irish tenor"

McNamara’s Band, the third piece in our medley, emanates from the same period.  Sheet music containing the piece was published in the US in 1914 and our version carries writing and composing credits for John J Stamford and Seamus O’Connor  – a duo who have so far eluded all my attempts to discover anything more about them.  The song is said to be based on the tale of the St Mary’s Fife and Drum Band, which was formed in Limerick in 1885, and the band’s current website endorses this version.  Among the members were four McNamara brothers – Patrick, John, Michael and Thomas, who all played in the same row. The band won the All Ireland Championship in the first year of its formation.

In 1901, Thomas emigrated to the USA, followed by his brother Patrick, who had been the bandmaster in Limerick.   At this point the narrative is disputed, but by one version Patrick formed “McNamara’s Band” with another former band member from Limerick, Patrick Salmon.  On another version, the band was formed by Patrick with his brother Thomas.

Either way, according to the St Mary’s Band website, “the combination soon caught the imagination of a great songwriter and so the famous ballad was born.”   Whether this “great songwriter” is the aforementioned John J Stamford or his colleague Seamus O’Connor is unclear.   The lyric of McNamara’s Band once again evokes memories of the motherland, as the band is “a credit to auld Ireland.”  It makes clear that the band is composed of numerous Irish immigrants, together with “Uncle Yulius” from Sweden.

As for the McNamara brothers, Thomas returned to Ireland in 1914 and joined the British Army, surviving the war.   His brother John joined the Royal Munster Fusiliers and was killed on the western front in 1915. Michael McNamara was a member of the same regiment and he too survived.   Thomas returned to the US after the war and teamed up again with Patrick.  With Thomas on the piccolo, Patrick on the violin and Patrick’s daughter on the piano, they formed a trio which recorded for Vocalion Records and Aeolian Records – that at least is a confirmed part of the McNamara story.

One of the most celebrated recordings appears in the affecting British wartime movie, The Way to the Stars, where Stanley Holloway leads a crowd singing the song in a pub near the fictional RAF base Halfpenny Field.   Bing Crosby recorded the song in 1945 and it became a hit in 1946.  The song has also been adapted into an anthem by fans of Spurs football club.

The last piece, Danny Boy, is one of the most studied songs in the Irish nostalgia repertoire, and emanates from the same period as the preceding three.   The author was Frederic Weatherly, an Oxford-educated English barrister and lyric writer with several thousand songs to his name, including the WW1 song Roses of Picardy.  He wrote Danny Boy in 1910 but at first it was not a success.  Then his sister-in-law, who lived in the US, sent him the music for the old Irish tune, Londonderry Air, which fitted the lyrics perfectly.   He published the song in 1913 and it quickly caught on.  It was first recorded in 1915 and made popular by the English soprano Elsie Griffin.

Freddy boy Weatherly

The song is another piece about separation and longing.  It is open to two interpretations: by one, Danny Boy is going off to war; by another, he is emigrating, like so many Irish people.  The first reading struck potent chords throughout Britain during WW1, and Elsie Griffin often sang it with Weatherly’s Roses of Picardy, another song lamenting separation and loss.  Latterly the song has been adopted as an unofficial anthem in both Ireland and the Irish diaspora.

The tune Londonderry Air most likely dates from late eighteenth century Ireland.   It was said to have been collected by one Jane Ross of Londonderry – hence the title.  It has been used as a setting for numerous other lyrics and hymns but the most enduring has proved to be Danny Boy.   A wide range of performers have recorded it, including Bryn Terfel, Johnny Cash, Andy Williams, Eric Clapton,  Nana Mouskouri, Carly Simon, Tony Bennett, John Baez, Roy Orbison, Tom Jones, Harry Belafonte, Judy Garland, Gracie Fields and – wait for it – Bing Crosby.

 

 

 
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